BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two genes thought to be associated with hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The BRCA genes, BRCA1 on chromosome 17q12-21 and BRCA2 on chromosome 13q12-13, have the function of acting as tumor suppressors. They play a crucial role in regulating cell division and preventing the formation of cancerous tumors. When functioning properly, BRCA1 and BRCA2 help maintain the stability of the genome and repair DNA damage. However, mutations in these genes can disrupt their tumor-suppressing abilities, leading to an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian, and other types of cancer.